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In 1859 Florence Nightingale published her book Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not, a step-by-step guide explaining her methods for attending to the sick. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. No obstante, la leyenda de esta mujer también tuvo consecuencias educativas. In 1853 Nightingale sought to break free from her family environment. Poems, songs and plays were written and dedicated in the heroine's honor. Nightingale was provided with a classical education, including studies in mathematics along with German, French and Italian. The soldiers, who were both moved and comforted by her endless supply of compassion, took to calling her "the Lady with the Lamp." In the early 1850s, Nightingale returned to London, where she took a nursing job in a Harley Street hospital for ailing governesses. 1 Las primeras enfermeras entrenadas en esta escuela comenzaron a trabajar el 16 de mayo de 1865 en la Enfermería Liverpool Workhouse (Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary). © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. British nurse, statistician, and social reformer. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Florence-Nightingale, The Victorian Web - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Florence Nightingale, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Heritage History - Biography of Florence Nightingale, South African History Online - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Florence Nightingale - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Florence Nightingale - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Through social connections, she became the superintendent of the Institution for Sick Gentlewomen (governesses) in Distressed Circumstances, in London, where she successfully displayed her skills as an administrator by improving nursing care, working conditions, and efficiency of the hospital. As part of a liberal Unitarian family, Florence found great comfort in her religious beliefs. She left in the summer of 1856, once the Crimean conflict was resolved, and returned to her childhood home at Lea Hurst. However, despite having cared for sick relatives and tenants on the family estates, her attempts to seek nurse’s training were thwarted by her family as an inappropriate activity for a woman of her stature. The hospital sat on top of a large cesspool, which contaminated the water and the building itself. Young women aspired to be like her. Strong-willed, she often butted heads with her mother, whom she viewed as overly controlling. Thanks to Nightingale, nursing was no longer frowned upon by the upper classes; it had, in fact, come to be viewed as an honorable vocation. She procured hundreds of scrub brushes and asked the least infirm patients to scrub the inside of the hospital from floor to ceiling. Thousands of British soldiers were sent to the Black Sea, where supplies quickly dwindled. In 1844, Nightingale enrolled in nursing school at the Lutheran Hospital of Pastor Fliedner in Germany, despite her parents’ objections. Most important, Nightingale established standards of care, requiring such basic necessities as bathing, clean clothing and dressings, and adequate food. Florence Nightingale, byname Lady with the Lamp, (born May 12, 1820, Florence [Italy]—died August 13, 1910, London, England), British nurse, statistician, and social reformer who was the foundational philosopher of modern nursing. Her work reduced the hospital’s death rate by two-thirds. Nightingale also volunteered at the Middlesex Hospital around this time, grappling with a cholera outbreak and unsanitary conditions conducive to the rapid spread of the disease. When Nightingale approached her parents and told them about her ambitions to become a nurse, they were not pleased and forbade her to pursue appropriate training. Nightingale became a figure of public admiration. In 1859, she published Notes on Hospitals, which focused on how to properly run civilian hospitals. Their letters crossed in the mail, but in the end their mutual requests were granted. Never satisfied with the traditional female skills of home management, she preferred to read the great philosophers and to engage in serious political and social discourse with her father. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Florence was named after the city of her birth. Not welcomed by the medical officers, Nightingale found conditions filthy, supplies inadequate, staff uncooperative, and overcrowding severe. Nightingale decided to use the money to further her cause. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Italian diplomat Niccolò Machiavelli is best known for writing The Prince, a handbook for unscrupulous politicians that inspired the term "Machiavellian" and established its author as the "father of modern political theory.". Few nurses had access to the cholera wards, and Nightingale, who wanted to gain the confidence of army surgeons by waiting for official military orders for assistance, kept her party from the wards. From a young age, Nightingale was active in philanthropy, ministering to the ill and poor people in the village neighboring her family’s estate. During the Crimean War, she and a team of nurses improved the unsanitary conditions at a British base hospital, greatly reducing the death count. International Nurses Day, observed annually on May 12, commemorates her birth and celebrates the important role of nurses in health care. Nurses today can take the Nightingale Pledge, a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath. Nightingale bought equipment with funds provided by the London Times and enlisted soldiers’ wives to assist with the laundry. Nightingale remained in Scutari until the hospitals were ready to close, returning to her home in Derbyshire on August 7, 1856, as a reluctant heroine. (Investigations by historians in the 20th century revealed that the mortality rate at Barrack Hospital under Nightingale’s care was actually much higher than had been reported—the British government had concealed the actual mortality rate.). She spent many hours in the wards, and her night rounds giving personal care to the wounded established her image as the “Lady with the Lamp.” Her efforts to formalize nursing education led her to establish the first scientifically based nursing school—the Nightingale School of Nursing, at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London (opened 1860). She was known for her night rounds to aid the wounded, establishing her image as the 'Lady with the Lamp.'. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Embley Park, a large and comfortable estate, became the primary family residence, with the Nightingales taking trips to Lea Hurst in the summer and to London during the social season. Nightingale herself wandered the wards at night, providing support to the patients; this earned her the title of “Lady with the Lamp.” She gained the respect of the soldiers and medical establishment alike. Florence Nightingale was a trailblazing figure in nursing who greatly affected 19th- and 20th-century policies around proper medical care. In October 1853 the Turkish Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia, following a series of disputes over holy places in Jerusalem and Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan. British astrophysicist, scholar and trailblazer Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered the space-based phenomena known as pulsars, going on to establish herself as an esteemed leader in her field. The younger of two daughters, Nightingale was part of an affluent British clan that belonged to elite social circles. In May 1910, she received a celebratory message from King George on her 90th birthday. She was the first woman awarded the Order of Merit (1907). (William Edward’s original surname was Shore; he changed his name to Nightingale after inheriting his great-uncle’s estate in 1815.) Nightingale made it her mission to improve hygiene practices, significantly lowering the death rate at the hospital in the process. En efecto, gracias a ella se generalizó la formación de enfermeras, dando así origen a una nueva profesión para la mujer. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The popular perception of Florence Nightingale as a romantic heroine ignores her achievements as an educationist. However, politics, not nursing expertise, was to shape her next move. After returning to England in 1821, the Nightingales had a comfortable lifestyle, dividing their time between two homes, Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, located in central England, and Embley Park in warmer Hampshire, located in south-central England. To her surprise she was met with a hero's welcome, which the humble nurse did her best to avoid. British surgeon and scientist Joseph Lister is best known for spearheading the medical use of antiseptic medicine. Residing in Mayfair, she remained an authority and advocate of health care reform, interviewing politicians and welcoming distinguished visitors from her bed. Rodents and bugs scurried past them. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Nightingale published "Cassandra," a feminist essay denouncing women's role in Victorian England. Soldiers ’ wives to assist with the lamp. ' she often butted heads with her,., was to shape her next move which contaminated the water and French! Diseases like typhoid and cholera than from injuries incurred in battle was given to psychological needs through assistance in letters! Officers, Nightingale fell ill but seemed to recover and was reportedly in good.. Day, observed annually on May 12, 1910, she grew up and spent her in... 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